Celebrity Endorsement In Malaysia Marketing Essay
Celebrity Endorsement In Malaysia Advertising Essay
Advertising began to play a dynamic role in advertising and marketing when it came to the development of world in the economy in the early 1930s. Stars acted as spokesperson, so that you can advertise and encourage a company products, offerings or ides. Those celebrities came from the art picture, modelling, sports along with the entertainment market (Kambitsis et.al., 2002). Whenever a British actress Lillie Langtry made an appearance on a package deal on Pears Soap in 1893, she started to be the world’s first superstar endorser.
Since radio became professional in the late 20s and tv set was unveiled in the overdue how to write a compare contrast essay 40s, celebrities started performing commercials (Sherman, 2010). Because of this, celebrity endorsement has become probably the most effective equipment in attracting consumers. Nearly every celebrity all over the world does commercials. For good examples Jack Benny, an American actor and comedian endorsed Jell-O, a gelatin dessert product in the 30s and 40s, David Beckham with Pepsi, Soon Hye Kyo with Laneige, Ashwarya Rai with L’Oreal hair shampoo, Jackie Chan endorses Kaspersky, and many more.
In Malaysia, celebrities are also trusted in advertising. For instance, Erra Fazira endorses Lux, Sarimah with Rejoice, Chef Wan with Vesawit and Siti Nurhaliza with Pepsi. This shows that by having superstars to endorse a product you won’t only raise the brand image but also the level of credibility and belief among buyers (Zabid et.al, 2002).
Celebrity endorsement is becoming one of the most employed strategies to advertise a product or something. This is due to celebrities are well-known subsequently; they’ll make the product that’s being endorsed more apparent. Even though this strategy is the most commonly use, there are some companies in Malaysia remain reluctant to utilize this strategy in promoting its product. Subsequently, this exploration with the title “The potency of Superstar Endorsement in Malaysia” will help the companies by answering questions about the topic. They are:
What are romance between advertising and superstar endorsement?
What are the factors that influence the potency of celebrity endorsement?
How effective is the implementation of superstar endorsement in Malaysia?
Based on the problem statements stated above, the study objectives are:
To review the relationship between advertising and celebrity advertising.
To analyze the elements that influences the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement.
To evaluate the effectiveness of superstar endorsement in Malaysia.
2. Literature Review
Relationship between Marketing and Celebrity Endorsement
Advertising is defined as the promotion of a company’s product or service to drive sales and also to communicate changes of latest services or products to the customers (Buzzle.com, 2011). Marketing has become among the essential factors in a business because it does not only assist in increasing the product sales of the product but likewise creating and keeping its photo among customers. There are many types of advertising that can be implemented by companies so as to promote its products. They are print advertising, outdoor advertising, public provider advertising, surrogate marketing, covert advertising, broadcast marketing and celebrity advertising and marketing (Buzzle.com, 2011).
Print advertising is a type of marketing that uses printing media such as newspapers, newsletters and periodicals to convey its message to consumers. Alternatively, outdoor advertising communicates its concept through promotional display such as highway billboards, transit posters and arena placement (Wisegeek.com, 2011). Regarding to Wisegeek.com (2011), Outdoor Advertising Association of America, Inc. (OAAC) had mentioned that businesses spent $5.8 billion us dollars on outdoor advertising in 2004. Public service advertising is an advertising approach that conveys socially relevant communications regarding important subject and social welfare causes like poverty, and deforestation (Buzzle.com, 2011). Meanwhile, surrogate advertising and marketing is defined as the process of duplicating the manufacturer image of 1 product extensively so that you can promote another merchandise of the same company (Panda, 2005). For instance, companies that produce cigarettes or alcohol which are prohibited by law in some country need to develop other goods of the same company to be able to remind persons about their existence available in the market (Buzzle.com, 2011).
According to Targeting-Advertising.com (2011), covert advertising and marketing is presently may be the hottest trend to advertise a product. Covert advertising is a kind of advertising that incorporated in a few entertainment and media stations such as for example movies, sports and Television shows in order to reach its customers. A number of the examples are the overall look on Nokia N97 in “I Gotta Feelin'” music video by Dark colored Eyed Peas, and the sponsorship of an America Television show “F.R.My spouse and i.E.N.D.S.” by Nescafe. Another type of advertising is broadcast advertising and marketing. Broadcast advertising is a kind of advertising that uses medium such as television, radio and internet to convey its communication to the people. Here is the most popular advertising strategy because it enables the company to reach a wider audience. However, celebrity advertising is the consumption of a celebrity or a public number for the intended purpose of selling products or services.
According to McCracken (1989), celebrity endorsement is defined as a personality who advantages from public acknowledgement and utilizes this acknowledgment with respect to a consumer product by endorsing it to the general public (McCracken, 1989). In short, a celebrity is someone who is well-known due to his/her achievement specifically in areas of entertainment such as for example films, music, writing, or sport. There are two forms of celebrity advertising; celebrity license and superstar endorsement (Mistry, 2006). Compared to celebrity license, superstar endorsement is the most widely used strategy in promoting products and services today. Celebrity endorsement is when superstars give his/her expert judgment regarding the product, become the spokesperson for a product, or just being connected with a particular product (Seno and Lucas, 2007). Nevertheless, according to Kamins (1989) celebrity endorsement could also include the non-celebrities such as a typical consumer, something professional expert, or a provider president. Typical buyer endorser can be an ordinary person who has no special knowledge about the product but has recently purchased and used the product beforehand. On the other hand, a product expert is usually a person or a group that possesses a superior knowledge regarding the product (Zabid et.al., 2002).
Celebrity vs. Non-Celebrity Effectiveness
According to Seno and Lucas (2007), a study has found that compared to other type of endorsers such as typical consumer and the professional expert, celebrities are the most reliable individual to attract consumers. On the other hand, Tom et.al (1992) said that non-stars endorsers are far better in comparison to celebrity endorsers. Simply because with non-superstar endorsers, it allows the company to regulate and create the individuals that is appropriate for the product and the target audience. Besides that, these personas are not allowed to endorse any other item. However, celebrity endorsers had already created their own characters therefore; the company is unable to control them.
Differences were found in the cognitive responses. On the other hand, there is absolutely no statistically factor in attitudes towards marketing and the intention of buying the endorsed product in the superstar and non-celebrity endorsement (Mehta 1994).
Factors that affect the Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsement
There are amount of elements that influence the potency of celebrity endorsement. Examples of the factors are celebrity performance, celebrity attractiveness, superstar credibility, celebrity information, multiple endorsements, celebrity attractiveness, celebrity availability, celebrity-product meet, and much more. However, in this study only some of these factors will be discussed.
In the context of the research, celebrity performance identifies the achievement of the celebrity within their chosen profession. This could refer to the achievement of the celebrity in music or films, the performance degree of athlete in sports and more. When a celebrity does not conduct in acceptably by customers, the potency of the endorsement will decline (Agrawal and Kamakura, 1995). In contrast, if the celebrity performance is increasing, the potency of the endorsement may also increase.
Since there is always a pairing between your brand and the celebrity established by consumers, detrimental information regarding the celebrity may affect the brand negatively (Erdogan and Baker, 2000). For example, Tiger Wood is definitely known as the endorser of Nike. However, because of a series of news report about his personal life, Nike lost over four percent of its aggregate marketplace value (Knittel and Stango, 2009). This demonstrates
a negative perception about a celebrity will decrease the level of the effectiveness of the endorsement. Hence, it’ll result in a loss for the company.
Chao et.al (2005) has stated that celebrity attractiveness in another of the factor that may determine the successfulness of superstar endorsement. Regarding to Kahle and Homer (1985), actually attractive endorsers are usually viewed and even more preferable by consumers compared to the less attractive endorsers. Hence, by having attractive celebrity endorsers, it will raise the effectiveness of the celebrity endorsement. For example, when Laneige made a decision to modify its endorser from Jeon Ji Hyun to a prettier and prominent Korean actress, knowing of the existence of the manufacturer starts to improve among consumers. This brings about a rise in sales of the product (Amore Pacific Corporation, 2009).
The most important aspect in celebrity endorsement is credibility. Relating to Miciak and Shanklin (1994), a study built among 43 advertisement agencies and companies, it really is believed that the most crucial scope of credibility will be trustworthiness and the competence of the celebrity with the product that is being endorsed. For instance, with the credibility of Amitabh Bachchan’s, Cadbury’s business which was declining as a result of controversy has been revived and back again on track (Taleja, 2010).
There are two instances of multiple endorsements that will be always been debated. They are 1) a single brand hiring multiple celebrities and 2) an individual celebrity endorsing multiple brands. For example, Britney Spears, buyers may bear in mind her as Pepsi’s endorser however they might not bear in mind her as McDonald’s or Toyota Vios’s endorser in 2000. Another exemplory case of multiple endorsements is certainly “Clear for Males” uses Christiano Ronaldo and Rainfall as endorsers.
The celebrity-product match/fit is also referred to as the match-up hypothesis. It refers to the synchronization of the meet between your celebrity endorser and the merchandise that is being endorsed (Till and Busler, 2000). Relating to Friedman et.al (1978), Erdogan and Baker (2000), and Till and Busler (2000), celebrity-product fit is the key function of the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement. Simply because with the proper celebrity with the proper personality, the message could be convey to the buyers effectively. For example, Pepsi’s target market is the youth. As a result, by sponsoring Michael Jackson World concert in 1993, Pepsi can reach its marketplace easily.
3.1 Theoretical Framework
Figure 1: Factor’s that Influences the potency of Celebrity Endorsement
3.2 Path Analysis
The main reason for this research is to analyze the factors the potency of celebrity endorsement aswell as to measure the effectiveness of superstar endorsement in Malaysia. From the literature review above, it is found that there are 6 main factors that influence the effectiveness of implementing celebrity endorsement strategy to attract consumers. By understanding these elements, the effectiveness could be identified. Hence, the potency of the implementation of this strategy Malaysia could be investigated.
3.3 Research Design
3.4 Data Collection
Data is the most crucial element needed to make a research. The reason being without the existence of relevant info, the objectives and purpose of a research can’t be met easily. There are two types of info; primary data and secondary data. Key data is the original molar mass argon or first-hand materials that has not been interpreted by anyone before. It might be further divided into two categories; qualitative data and quantitative data. Qualitative data is described as data which might be categorized regarding to its characteristics such as for example gender and nationality. However, quantitative data (also called numerical data) are info which can be measured on a numerical scale. Secondary data may be the information collected from other resources such as for example books, journals, review articles or blog posts, and newspaper which relates to the research.
For this research, primary data can be acquired through questionnaires, concentrate group or observation. Questionnaire is a couple of questions given to respondents in order to get data which is related to the research topic. However, focus group is a kind of qualitative research when a group of folks are asked about their perceptions, views, beliefs and attitudes towards something, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging (Henderson, 2009). Meanwhile, observation refers to a technique where the behaviour of research topics is watched and documented with no direct contact.The most effective primary research because of this study is questionnaire. This is because questionnaires enable researcher to acquire data from the mark group efficiently.
In the questionnaire, the questions were created as open ended issues and close ended problems. Open ended issues are questions that needed the respondents to add their view towards the question. In the mean time, the close ended questions required the respondents to choose, or rate the questions accordingly. For this topic, both questions are suggested to come to be asked in the questionnaire. By having these two types of issues in this questionnaire, it enables researcher to collect information comprising both qualitative and quantitative data. However, there is no primary research has been performed by the researcher but. Therefore, no primary info are available.
For secondary research, data are received from journals, books, and website released by others. In producing this exploration, number of journals, content, books and websites has been referred. However, only some of them are being used in developing this research.
This research focuses on the sampling group of youthful adult and adult from age 18 to 35 years old. This selection has been chosen because they are the group of folks who often make their individual decision on investing in a product or service. Besides that, this range is chosen because they are the group of individuals who are always be influenced by the celebrities. By having them as the prospective segment, research can be achieved easily and effectively.
In this analysis, the measurement scales that happen to be selected will be the likert scale and the nominal level. According to Proctor (2003), nominal scale allows an object to get positioned in one and only 1 of a couple of mutually exclusive classes with no implied ordering such as gender; female or male. On the other hand, likert level is a scaling technique that describes the quantitative benefit to qualitative data in order to make it amenable to statistical examination such as highly agree, recognize, neutral, disagree and strongly disagree (BusinessDictionary.com, 2011). Because of this research, the nominal scale is used to gauge the time and gender of the targeted respondents and the likert scale is used to measure the consumers’ perception towards superstar endorsement.
Due to the type of this research, it has to be said that the study might have been done more effectively if more resources for instance text book could possibly be obtain to support the study. This research title is very limited in text publication provided in KBU College Library but there are more in the Emerald Insight web page. To be able to obtain top quality journals from now there, users are advised to pay the membership cost online. However, KBU possesses student the usage of Emerald Insight website as the college had currently paid the fee, but students are permitted to access to the web site within the college premises.
Furthermore, this research simply used secondary info collection. The majority of the secondary data come from other authors’ thoughts and opinions gain from their findings. So, the views from other authors usually do not mean they happen to be aligned with the whole population’s opinions in this world. For this reason problem, the accuracy of the research had reduced. Besides that, because of the limited time, no most important exploration has been done. Consequently, all information obtainable in this research will not meet the purpose of this study which is to study the effectiveness of superstar endorsement in Malaysia.
Before conducting the study, a researcher has to ensure that the study topic, objectives and rewards are clearly explain to avoid the deception on the study. Besides that, all the details given by the respondents such as for example name, age, contact quantity and house address are exclusive and confidential. Hence they must be protected and cannot be reveled or sold elsewhere. Respondents are also allowed to not to provide their details or info before answering the questions to protect their personal privacy if forced.
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